A growing number of scientists, doctors, politicians and informed citizens are petitioning authorities for improved public education and safety standards relating to potential electromagnetic radiation (EMR) health risks. But there is no need to wait for a meaningful response that may be years away. The precautionary measures on this page are presented for consideration by readers wishing to take immediate control of their energetic environment. Please note that the contents of this website are not intended for diagnosing or treating medical conditions. To ensure your individual circumstances are duly taken into account, obtain professional advice prior to taking or not taking any action. View full website Legals.

As Easy as 1, 2, 3

Due to their close proximity to the body, personal wireless devices are by far the most influential sources of EMR. A transmitting mobile phone subjects its user to upward of 500,000 times more radiation than the natural electromagnetic field of the planet within which we have evolved. Based upon a profile of typical exposure, here are three simple measures that can most significantly reduce the potential for adverse effects.

1. Hold your mobile phone as far away from your head as is practical; ideally at arm’s length in “speaker” mode. The same applies to cordless phones or any portable transmitting device. Even a 20-30cm distance can reduce bodily microwave absorption by up to ten times. If you are concerned about disturbing others, move away. Alternate holding the phone at each side of the head to balance exposure.

Standard RJ45 socketed cable

2. Use a hardwired “ethernet” cable (RJ45) connection between your computer and internet modem. Most so-called wireless modems still have the appropriate matching sockets. To defeat intermittent transmissions, remember to then disable the Wi-Fi functionality in both the computer and modem using their respective software interfaces, or buttons if provided. Generally, cable internet is faster, safer and more secure.

Intensity at 3 meters from source is 9 times less than a 1 meter.

3. Let the “inverse square law” work in your favor. Magnetic field intensity drops off exponentially with distance from its source. Maintain a prudent distance between yourself and any emitter of EMR. Remember that it penetrates most non-metallic walls, so exposure can originate from devices outside or in adjacent rooms. Note that this law does not apply equally to electrical fields which exhibit a linear drop-off.

General Practice

  • Demand clearer consumer safety warnings and public education on prudent use of all EMR-emitting products. At minimum, read and observe the fine print precautionary health warnings now included for liability purposes in wireless product instruction manuals.
  • Purchase a good quality EMR, or “electro-smog”, meter covering the frequency range of interest (ELF, RF, or both). This enables measuring EMR levels in the home or workplace, as well as quantification of the result of any applied counter-measures. Carry one around to educate others in your community, including Government officials, about their invisible environment. As technology evolves, transmitters and antennae are becoming increasingly small and hidden within devices or the structural elements of a “normal” environment. Consequently, the presence of many cannot be detected at all without the use of a meter.
Skull penetration of phone radiation is greater for young children.
  • Exercise particular care with children. Instruct in safe and non-addictive use of personal electronics. Limit screen time to reduce exposure and encourage balanced development.
  • Avoid unusually high concentrations of EMR and standing wave effects by not positioning yourself between two or more emission sources.
  • If being acutely affected and unable to leave the area, limit body movement to minimize absorption. Reduce exposed surface area by assuming a “low profile” posture. For example, lie down with your feet toward the source of radiation.
  • Manage your proximity to metal objects such as wall studding, steel furniture and inner-spring mattresses. These can concentrate and re-radiate incident RF, especially if of matching wavelength. Similarly, don’t be a walking antenna by wearing electrically conductive personal accessories such as watches, buckles, jewelry, metal-framed glasses, etc.
Both distance and terrain can be used as shielding from RF sources.
  • Download from telecom websites maps of current and proposed mobile phone and Wi-Fi coverage areas. Move to a lesser affected locality. Take occasional trips away from electro-polluted population centers so your body can “recollect” its natural state. Join with others to purchase or lease land and establish a dedicated “EMR refuge”. Or remain mobile by living in a camper van or boat.
  • Although costly, RF excluding head nets, bed canopies, and conventional-looking garments made of silver interwoven fabric are commercially available from a number of suppliers. Create a radio frequency exclusion zone, by retro-fitting the windows and openings of an all-metal caravan or trailer with aluminum fly screens..
  • If renting, purchasing or constructing a home, prefer one with a metal roof, and either sheet metal walls or continuous builders foil beneath the cladding. Install metal fly screen on doors and windows. A concrete slab, as opposed to raised flooring, will admit less EMR.
  • Apartment and city living is more likely to result in routine exposure from devices owned by your neighbors. If you live in such a place, respectfully communicate to raise their awareness.
  • Switch off or unplug all non-essential electrical devices at the power outlet when not in use, or over night. Sleeping areas can be wired through a separate circuit breaker to enable switching off during sleep. However, be careful not to deactivate smoke alarms or other essential devices.
  • Avoid stress, worry, chemical pollutants and other lifestyle factors that may contribute to personal electro-sensitivity. Research the ability of anti-oxidant rich foods and supplements to counteract free radicals and other systemic disorders caused by exposure to EMR.
The “umbrella” effect of earthing allows the body to reside within a lower potential electric field.
  • Walk barefoot on natural ground, shower or swim to draw off accumulated electrical charge from your body. Exercise and spend more time outdoors. Attach a purpose-made conductive rubber static strap to your car’s undercarriage. Similarly, manufactured “earthing” pads or mattresses may improve quantity of sleep. For safety, never earth yourself through the “earth” or “ground” of the mains electrical system, such as at a power outlet.
The biologically disruptive, instantaneous transitions of a digital waveform (red) are not found in nature.

Mobile Phones

700MHz to about 2.5GHz network dependent
  • Limit the duration and frequency of calls. Text, Skype or use a corded landline when possible. Ask your acquaintances to do the same when contacting you. Oppose any moves by the telecoms to decommission copper wire services, as these will then be irreversibly replaced with less reliable and electro-polluting wireless networks.
  • Purchase an air-tube style headset. Be aware that ordinary wired ear phones or buds can act as an antenna and potentially worsen exposure.
  • Because the phone intermittently “polls” the nearest towers, even when on standby, when not in use switch it “off” or to “airplane mode”. When carrying the phone and it is switched “on”, put it in a bag at distance from your body, not within a garment or closely worn accessory.
  • Fewer apps means less radiation. Minimize the number of apps and disable the most unnecessary background services on your smartphone. Disabling “mobile services”, “data network mode” and Wi-Fi turns the smartphone into a conventional mobile phone.
  • Reduce the use of cell phones to stream audio or video, or to download or upload large files.
  • Avoid the use of so-called “virtual; reality” adapters that hold the phone in close proximity to the eyes and face for extended periods of time while streaming data.
  • Refrain from using a mobile phone or other wireless device for at least a few hours before retiring to avoid disruption of sleep due to microwaves and the adverse light spectrum they admit. Keep wireless devices out of the bedroom. Especially do not place under pillow, etc.
  • Hold the headset on its lower edge with the fingertips. This permits the phone to transmit a weaker signal by reducing absorption by the hand. If you know the direction of your provider’s nearest tower, position the phone between it and your body, again to reduce microwaves passing through you.
  • Radiation is highest during the first few seconds of call connection when the phone is searching for a tower. Since this function is triggered whenever you move a few meters, avoid using a phone while walking or riding.
  • Try to make calls only when reception is good. Avoid enclosed metal spaces that can degrade your outgoing signal by concentrating it within. This causes the phone to compensate by increasing its signal strength, thereby magnifying the effect.
Mobile phone radiation confined and intensified within a car.
  • It is dangerous to call or text while driving not simply because of “distraction”, but also due to the ability of microwaves to induce a mild trance state and thereby diminish outer awareness. If you regularly use a phone (lawfully) within a vehicle, for example while safely parked, consider installing an externally mounted antenna.
  • If you operate a mobile phone mostly from one location, sign up with the provider that has the nearest tower so minimum signal strength is required to establish a connection.
  • Prefer a GSM over now largely superseded CDMA network. The latter’s signal is more complex and generally stronger. The same applies to the evolution of most phone technology, e.g. from 4G to 4GX to 5G.
  • Due to their proprietary design features, certain models of phones are known to have a low SAR. Comparisons are available on the internet. One example is the early Samsung Galaxy series.
  • Where practical, replace mobiles with corded phones, readily available secondhand from online auction sites. In fixed locations, keep your mobile phone at a distance by purchasing a cradle that incorporates a wired handset and speaker.
  • The camera and/or microphone of smartphones can be remotely activated for surveillance even when the phone is in airplane mode or switched “off”. They also track your movements via GPS interaction with nearby devices, thereby enabling behavior and close contacts to be monitored and profiled. Since the arrival of non-removable batteries, the only way to defeat this is enclosure within a metallic lined Faraday pouch or box. If not needed, the camera(s) can be blocked with adhesive tape.
  • Choose your apps carefully. Some interact continuously with a remote service center or peripheral devices. This results in a higher volume of transmissions from your phone and possible sale to third parties of your personal behavior or biometrics.
  • Do not fall prey to New Age “anti-radiation” stickers, pendants, chips, orgonite, battery powered “shields”, etc. that claim to reduce or neutralize ambient microwaves. Irrespective of paid testing, they have no significant or measurable effect in actual use. If they did, every manufacturer would already be building them into their phones. There is no substitute for sensible and science-based precautions.

Cordless Phones (DECT)

900Mhz, 1.8, 2.4 and 5.8GHz
  • Cordless base stations transmit 24/7 at full power even when a call is not in progress. Locate it away from work or sleeping spaces. Switch it off at the power outlet when not required.
  • Hold the headset away from the head, or enable speaker mode.
  • Replace cordless phones with a hardwired type, or a Siemens (Gigaset) “Eco-DECT”. The latter is unique in that it can be set to transmit only while a call is underway.

Wi-Fi Modems

2.4 GHz, 5GHz. 10Hz pulse repetition
  • Unlike mobile phones, Wi-Fi modems broadcast at full power irrespective of distance or quality of reception. They can often be detected at a range of up to 100 meters. If you must operate one, situate it as far as possible from living and working areas, and switch “off” at the power outlet at night or when not in use.
  • Domestic wireless modems have a range of up to 100 meters. Install upon your computer the free or low cost software described on our Measuring EMR page to monitor Wi-Fi modems operating in your neighborhood. Then consult with their owners about moving the modem away from your common boundary or converting to wired.
  • Be cautious of signing onto “hot spot” schemes offered by telco’s whereby other people share your Wi-Fi modem. This can result in greater microwave traffic and radiation exposure for you and your family.
  • A less electro-polluting alternative to Wi-Fi that minimizes external cabling is “broadband over power lines” (BPL). One example is the HomePlug that multiplexes data through household wiring to any power outlet.

Laptops, Tablets and PC’s

2.4GHz and 5GHz, plus processor and bus frequencies
  • Purchase products with a built-in ethernet socket to allow cable connected internet. If your present device does not have one, an inexpensive USB 3.0 to RJ45 (ethernet) adapter can be purchased.
  • When offline or cable connected, disable the computer’s internal wireless modem either by keyboard switch or software interface. Here is how to disable any additional unneeded wireless features as well, including Bluetooth and GPS.
Laptops and tablets may contain several transmitting antennae including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPS.
  • Similarly, use printers, scanners and other peripherals cabled and with their Wi-Fi function disabled..
  • If you need portable Wi-Fi, place the modem (dongle) at distance by connecting it to a long USB cable. Same principle applies to tethered mobile phones.
  • Instead of resting a Wi-Fi enabled computer directly upon the lap, place it on a desk, table or thick cushion to create distance. Alternatively, buy a commercially sold RF shielding pad. These measures are relevant even if not using Wi-Fi because high frequency EMR is also generated by the processor and related circuitry within all computers.
  • To prevent your computer’s camera or microphone from being activated remotely for non-consensual surveillance, apply adhesive tape to the camera lens and insert an unwired 3.5mm plug into the audio input socket.
  • Instead of actual brightness control, many computer screens employ pulse width modulation (PWM) to simulate dimming. This can result in headaches and eyestrain. If you are not going to operate at 100% brightness at all times, consult these databases and select a device that is “flicker free”.
  • Iron core transformers are becoming a thing of the past. Most devices now emit a KHz frequency from their switching power supply. If it is externally attached, you have the option of placing it as far away as practical.
  • When selecting a computer mouse, keyboard or other peripheral, prefer a USB corded type as opposed to wireless.
  • Avoid the use of visual displays within a few hours of bedtime. The emitted blue light can interfere with sleep cycles. Wear orange-tinted glasses, or shift the color balance of your screen toward warm. This free software does the latter automatically.
  • Rather than stream media continuously with a phone near your head, place it at a distance while downloading selections to your phone’s memory. Then switch to “airplane” mode for viewing or listening offline.

Bluetooth Accessories

Relative signal strength and range of the 3 “classes” of Bluetooth.
  • Prefer hardwired ear-pieces, keyboards, mice, speakers, etc. Remove headset when not on-call.
  • Choose Bluetooth “Class 3” (or 2) products which have lower emissions than Class 1. Avoid Bluetooth devices designed to operate over long range.
  • If cables are inconvenient, a limited range of infrared-linked products are still available.

Wearable Technology

  • Think twice about any wireless technology such as microphones, phone or audio Bluetooth headsets, biometric monitors, and fitness bands that are worn for extended periods in close proximity to the body.
  • Certain manufacturers are promoting headsets that position a mobile phone against the face for a 3D “virtual reality” experience. These can subject the viewer to sustained, close proximity microwave exposure and eye strain.
  • There is a new generation of “smart” toys that interact wirelessly with other devices or the internet. Be aware that these may send sound, images and behavioral profiling to the manufacturer. Additional to this, it is our view that mobile phones should not be handed to children as a “pacifier”.
  • Operate pagers, TETRA and CB-type radios or any personal transmitting device as far away from the body as possible.

Phone and Internet Towers

700MHz to about 2.5GHz. GSM 8.34Hz and 217Hz pulse
  • Commonly available metallic products shown above are among those that, if properly installed upon walls, ceilings or roofs nearest to a tower, will exclude radiofrequency signals by reflecting them away. This is particularly worth considering for premises within 500 to 1,000 meters from a tower. From left to right are aluminum insect screen, aluminized mylar “emergency blanket”, car sun screen, metal roofing and foil-backed building insulation or vapor barrier. Be aware that microwaves are “quasi-optical”, meaning that although directional, they will enter even hairline cracks, as well as converge within a certain distance beyond the edges of any shielding surface. Gaps can be bridged by overlapping or application of self-adhesive aluminum tape. Observe all applicable safety standards, particularly around electrical fittings to prevent shorts, or engage a professional.
  • One method to shield smaller areas from a directional source is to modify a half-dome beach shelter. Position the convex side facing toward the incoming signal and attach metallic foil with spring clips over its outer surface. Leave the front opening uncovered to permit free air flow. It is large enough to accommodate a sitting cushion or the head of a bed. Larger fully enclosed structures can be constructed on the principle of a Faraday cage using aluminum insect screen stapled to all six sides of a rectangular wooden frame. The screen surrounding the entry point or door needs to tightly overlap at least 50mm to prevent “leaks”.
  • Plant fast-growing leafy trees or tall bushes in line-of-sight between you and the tower, Microwaves will be absorbed by their water content instead of yours.
Plant fast-growing trees. Their water content absorbs microwaves.
  • Choose fiber optic or wired ADSL internet in preference to aerially transmitted services based upon WiMAX or LTE fixed wireless. The latter requires a microwave transmitting antenna to be affixed to your premises. If this is unavoidable, place it on the eave or outer wall closest to the tower, and as high as practical to minimize intrusion of the radiation plume into living space. Be aware of similar antennae on neighboring buildings that may be facing you and undertake appropriate countermeasures.
  • 4G and 5G mobile broadband are becoming increasingly viable alternatives to dedicated internet networks. With them you have the option to connect the modem to computers by RJ45 ethernet cable, and then place the former as far as possible from inhabited areas.
  • The success of any RF mitigation strategy must be confirmed with measurements using a meter or professional EMR survey service. Apart from peace of mind, this ensures you have not inadvertently concentrated one or more signals arriving from directions other than those you have shielded from. If you do not have a dedicated direction-finding meter, their presence can be monitored to a degree by using the “Directional Meter” work-around described on our Measuring EMR page.
Typical radiation plumes vary in intensity over distance
  • If you own land and are approached by a service provider to lease space for a tower, be aware that 1) it may reduce the future sales value of your property far more than any rent gained, 2) you could be required to purchase your own insurance and effectively share liability, 3) your health may be at risk due to 24/7 microwave exposure, 4) additional services can be co-located on the tower, and 5) your neighbors may become upset for reasons previously listed.
As antennas become progressively smaller, eyesight alone is no longer a reliable means of identification.

School Wi-Fi

2.4GHz and 5GHz
  • Move to a Wi-Fi free school or choose home schooling.
  • Levels of exposure are highest near the classroom’s modem or wireless access point. Ask that your child be seated at maximum distance from it. Sitting along a wall helps minimize the number of adjoining desks as would be occupied by students using personal wireless devices.
“Heat map” of school classrooms indicates typical radiation patterns of multiple Wi-Fi modems.
  • Provide educational literature to the Principal, teachers and other parents on the effects of Wi-Fi radiation and children’s greater susceptibility to same. Submit a request in writing that wireless technologies be limited in duration of use, switched off at other times or replaced entirely with a hard-wired network. Alternatively, ask that a Wi-Fi free classroom to be made available as a matter of choice..
  • In addition to Wi-Fi internet, numerous other wireless technologies are being sold into schools. These include networked office equipment, student RFID tracking, communication aids for the hearing impaired and “virtual reality” learning experiences that rely upon mobile phones held in position over the eyes.

Public Wi-Fi Hot Spots

2.4GHz and 5GHz, 10Hz pulse
  • Patronize businesses or public areas that do not offer customer Wi-Fi. Alternatively, ask where the modem is located. Then sit as far away as possible from both it and fellow patrons using the connection. Beware of the stronger signal emitted by increasingly common “boosters” designed to extend the operational range of a Wi-Fi network.
  • Avoid malls and commercial precincts with “free Wi-Fi” or hot spots, internet-enabled phone booths and shops with radio frequency ID or tracking systems (RFID).

Road and Air Transport

2.4 GHz and 5GHz, 10Hz pulse
  • A metal bus, train or airplane body concentrates radio waves along its central axis. Sit next to a window, as far away from the modem as practical. Preferably in a narrow end row where fewer people can potentially use a device near you.
  • Lists of airlines and flights with Wi-Fi are available online.
  • Modems are often hidden out-of-sight, Carry an RF meter with you when you travel. Here is a growing list of hotels and travel facilities that do not use Wi-Fi.
  • Try to book air travel so most flight time occurs at night. This minimizes high altitude exposure to ionizing solar radiation including gamma and X-rays.
  • Cars with standard transmission and diesel engines are said to emit less EMR. Choose one in which the engine is not near or beneath the driver’s compartment. Limit use of high current automotive accessories such as the heater and air conditioner.
  • In electric hybrid cars, high frequency radiation is strongest in the rear seat, when operating on both fuel and electric and during rapid acceleration. Adjust driving habits accordingly. Keep the “smart key” in the ignition slot instead of within a clothing pocket.
  • Purchase an earlier year model vehicle that does not incorporate technologies such as Bluetooth, GPS, radar or wirelessly connected internal components.
  • Be aware that high speed trains utilizing magnetic levitation subject passengers to strong field intensities. Additionally, in European countries electric trains draw power from overhead wires pulsing at 16Hz, a frequency associated with Calcium efflux and brain wave interference.

Body Scanners

24GHz to 30GHz
  • Travel by land or sea, or fly from airports that have no full body scanner. Lists of these are available online. Alternatively, prefer airports that operate millimeter wave equipment which is considered “safer” than the now mostly superseded X-ray type.
  • Ask for a manual pat down. Where this is not a routine option (as in Australia), and passengers are selected for scanning “at random”, book your flight for the busiest hour of the busiest day. To avoid profiling, present a conservative appearance . Enter the screening queue when at full capacity. If the booth is single and in plain sight, observe how long it takes for a person to be scanned. Those with carry-ons generally take longer. Without undue fuss, time your arrival at the end of the queue so the booth will be still occupied.
  • Option two: Present your doctor with scientific studies on the biological effects of millimeter wave radiation. See our Scientific Evidence page for examples. Then ask he or she for a signed certificate requesting that you be exempted due to the possibility of an adverse reaction such as you may have experienced in the past. If selected for scanning, show the letter and request a pat down. If they insist upon scanning you, ask to speak with a senior person with medical qualifications prepared to over-ride your doctor’s advice.
  • Proceed as above at your own risk and not without appropriate legal advice..Irrespective of the outcome, remain polite, methodical and calm. Note that deliberately avoiding official security procedures may be unlawful in some jurisdictions..
  • Where safe and in accord with professional medical advice, limit your exposure to MRI, CAT scans or X-rays. The former two emit very high intensity magnetic fields and the latter ionizing radiation.

Mains Wiring and Appliances

50 and 60Hz and 20KHz to 300KHz switching
  • Relocate sitting, working and sleeping arrangements away from meter boxes, pole-mounted transformers and major electrical appliances. The latter include electric furnaces and room heaters, water heaters and pumps, fans and air conditioners, induction stoves, washing machines, clothes and hair driers, heating pads and blankets, machinery and office equipment.
Many sources of EMR within a typical home.
  • To eliminate AC fields, install an off-grid solar energy system and power appliances directly from 12 or 24 volt batteries. Inverters, such as those used in grid-connected solar, emit switching frequencies in the KHz region. DC appliances, or those operated on gas, are widely sold in boating and caravan shops.
  • Purchase refrigerators, washing machines, etc. that do not contain a wireless chip that connects to the smart grid via a Home Area Network (HAN). This new generation of “smart appliances” monitors your daily activity and uploads information to third parties for profiling, marketing and surveillance.
  • Avoid plugging appliances into power outlets located near beds or sitting areas. This increases current flow through adjacent wiring.
  • All microwave ovens leak radiation to some extent, and are also reported to devitalize food. If you must use one, at least stand clear.
  • When buying an existing home, prefer a neighborhood with underground wiring and no nearby transmitting towers. Avoid proximity to electricity power lines, transformers, substations, phone or fixed wireless towers, Wi-Fi “small cell” antenna and smart meter collectors.
  • If constructing a new building, low EMR wiring techniques can be applied, such as routing feeds for major appliances away from living or sleeping areas, or enclosing them in grounded metal conduit. Similar attention can be given to placement of electricity feed lines and meter boxes.
  • Test the earth/ground circuit, metal gas or water pipes to ensure “ground currents” are not being transferred to household wiring. If necessary, install dielectric couplings.
  • Have a switch professionally installed to power “off” non-essential wiring circuits at night while asleep or during similar prolonged periods of disuse..
  • There are a number of filters on the market that plug into existing power outlets and claim to purge household wiring of accumulated “dirty electricity”. Reports on their effectiveness vary.

Utility Smart Meters

900MHz and 2.4GHz
  • Try to avoid having one installed in the first place: 1) send a refusal letter to your electricity retailer and distributor, or take advantage of their approved opt-out process, 2) post a “no smart meter” sign on your meter box, and 3) lock the box by a safety approved method that does not obstruct the existing meter from being read. Always obtain legal advice prior to commencing any potentially contentious strategies. For further information, refer to the numerous smart meter opposition groups listed on our Support page.
  • To circumvent intrusive monitoring of individual appliances, a battery bank “buffer” can be inserted between them and the metered current. Since the batteries are continually topped up by a charger, fewer are required in comparison to a fully off-grid system. An inverter is then added to step the voltage back up to 110 or 240VAC. Installations of this type should only be performed by a qualified electrician.
Smart metering collects saleable data on your personal habits and lifestyle
  • If you already have a smart meter, request replacement with an older analogue model, or relocate sitting and sleeping arrangements as far from it as possible. Consider installing RF shielding on the internal wall adjacent to the meter. Not all meters with a digital readout are “smart” or designed to transmit microwaves. To avoid an unnecessary response, investigate the make and model number.online before taking action.
  • When you purchase a household appliance, check to see if it incorporates any “smart features” that may be wirelessly linked to your electricity provider’s Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), or a third party. These may utilize a separate Zigbee-type module that transmits on 2,4GHz. Even cameras and microphones are beginning to appear in some consumer white goods.
  • Many major insurers have adopted exclusions in their policies for damage or injury caused by EMR. Smart meters have been responsible for numerous house fires. Check with your insurer to see if you are covered.

Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL’s)

25KHz to 60KHz
  • Compact fluorescent lamps, LED globes, and dimmer switches contain switching circuits that both radiate EMR and inject “dirty electricity” spikes into home wiring. CFL’s contain mercury and, along with LED’s, emit a biologically incompatible light spectrum. How to properly clean up broken CFL’s.
  • Replace CFL’s with R80, or similar, incandescent spot lamps still widely sold in supermarkets. An alternative is decorative bulbs, such as the “candle” style. Since these are typically only 25W, make up for the smaller wattage by employing multiple fittings. A second best option is 120/240VAC halogen. However, these get very hot and, although the glass lens/envelope is intended to filter UV rays out, some may escape.
  • In addition to less radiation, incandescent lamps also emit a more balanced “natural” spectrum less prone to causing eye strain and sleep disorders due to an excess of blue light.